|CHAPTER TWO: THEMATIC AREAS OF FOCUS
2.4 Revenue Transparency [Page 9]
Tax revenue is the most important, reliable and sustainable means of resourcing initiatives that contribute to the realisation of human rights such as health and education. Businesses are significant contributors to tax revenue. The Kenya Revenue Authority Act, 1995 provides that domestic revenue is derived from several sources including taxes, duties, fees, levies, charges, penalties, fines or other monies and are collected from individuals, private and public businesses by different entities at national and county level.
Tax justice and the regulation of financial behaviour of companies can no longer be treated in isolation from the corporate responsibility to respect human rights, outlined in the UNGPs and business commitments to support the SDGs. Indeed, the SDGs include specific targets on reducing illicit financial flows (IFFs), returning stolen assets, reduction of corruption, and strengthening domestic resource mobilisation. In this respect, Goal 16 on the promotion of peaceful and inclusive societies includes specific targets on reducing illicit financial flows (target 16.4), corruption (target 16.5), Goal 17 on strengthening implementation and partnerships, target 17.1, provides for the strengthening of domestic resource mobilisation, including through international support to developing countries, to improve domestic capacity for tax and other revenue collection.
Like in many jurisdictions, Kenya faces challenges concerning revenue mobilisation and the link to business activities, among them IFFs, tax avoidance and tax evasion by businesses. These practices result in reduction of the resources available for investment in essential social services fostering inequalities, undermining economic and social institutions and discouraging transparency in matters of public finances. The Kenya Government has enacted legislation to address these practices, including the Anti-Corruption and Economic Crimes Act, the Bribery Act, 2016, and amendments in 2017 to the Proceeds of Crime and Anti-Money Laundering Act, 2009 (POCAMLA).
The 2017 amendments to the Proceeds of Crime and Anti-Money Laundering Act, 2009 establish the Financial Reporting Centre (FRC), an independent financial intelligence agency charged with combating money laundering and identifying proceeds of crime including tax evasion. The Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission Act, 2012 creates the Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission (EACC) whose mandate is to combat and prevent corruption and economic crimes set out in the Anti-Corruption and Economic Crimes Act. The Bribery Act, 2016 seeks to address the supply side of corruption by placing a duty on businesses to put in place appropriate measures relative to their size, scale and nature of operations towards the prevention of bribery and corruption, and also requires any person holding a position of authority in a business to report any knowledge or suspicion of bribery within twenty-four hours. Kenya is also party to international and regional initiatives on combating bribery and corruption.
Despite the above efforts, the NAP consultations identified several challenges that affect revenue transparency:
CHAPTER THREE POLICY ACTIONS
3.1. Pillar 1: The State Duty to Protect
Policy Actions [Page 18]
The Government will:
xii. Review current trade and investment promotion agreements and bring them into compliance with the Constitution and international human rights standards to ensure that they are not used to facilitate illicit financial flows and tax evasion by businesses.
CHAPTER FOUR: IMPLEMENTATION AND MONITORING
ANNEX 1: SUMMARY OF POLICY ACTIONS [Page 24]