Pakistan – Corruption

CHAPTER 1: National Action Plan on Business and Human Rights

1.4. Coherence between the National Action Plan, Other Government Policies, and Pakistan’s International Commitments (Page 10)

‘Pakistan’s GSP+ Status […] was granted in light of and to support Pakistan’s efforts at strengthening compliance with the 27 core international conventions pertaining to human rights, labour, corruption and the environment […] and will be further strengthened through the protection of human rights in business activity. The NAP provides a strong framework to support Pakistan’s commitments under schemes such as GSP+.’

Chapter 2: Protect, Respect, Remedy Framework

Pillar I | State Duty to Protect Human Rights (page 12)

‘There are several other laws that specifically deal with the human rights of citizens with regards to protection from environmental degradation, corrupt practices, unlawful land arrangements, tax evasion, etc.’

Pillar II | Corporate Responsibility to Respect Human Rights (page 13)

‘Pakistan also has in place laws relating to corruption & bribery, protection of the environment, taxation, land arrangements, consumer protection and the right to information in the context of business activity.’

CHAPTER 3: National Action Plan Priority Areas and Proposed Actions

3.2. NAP Priority Areas

3.2.1 | Financial Transparency, Corruption and Human Rights Standards in Public Procurement Contracts (page 18)

‘As established during the NBA and consultative process, lack of financial transparency especially in relation to corruption and bribery are prevalent in Pakistan. These have a direct correlation with human rights as the lack of financial transparency contributes to money laundering, terror financing and tax evasion, which negatively impact social development programmes and human rights. Additionally, the nexus between corruption and the adverse impact on human rights needs to be explicitly highlighted in legislation and policies, and in the working of law enforcement bodies.

Various laws and regulations have been introduced by the State of Pakistan to curb corrupt practices and activities involving bribery. Similarly, enforcement mechanisms have also been established to ensure the effective implementation of the laws and regulations prohibiting corruption and activities involving bribery. […]’

Proposed Actions

  • Federal (page 18)

‘9. Pass the Whistleblower Protection and Vigilance Commission Bill 2019 to ensure protection of whistle-blowers disclosing information related to financial discrepancies and corruption.

Performance indicator(s): Enactment of the Whistleblower Bill

UN Guiding Principle(s): 1, 3

Relevant SDG(s): Goal 16 – Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions’

This information is also covered under Appendix I: Implementation Plan, Proposed Action 9 designating the Ministry of Human Rights and the Ministry of Law and Justice as Leading Entities (page 46).

’12. Further strengthen judicial processes and create awareness on issues related to Anti-Money Laundering/Counter Terror Financing (AML/CTF) to encourage financial transparency.

Performance indicator(s): Number of trainings on AML/CTF

UN Guiding Principle(s): 1, 2, 3, 25

Relevant SDG(s): Goal 16 – Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions’

This information is also covered under Appendix I: Implementation Plan, Proposed Action 12 designating the Ministry of Human Rights, the Ministry of Law and Justice and the Anti-Corruption and Economic Crime Wing (Federal Investigation Agency) as Leading Entities, and designating the National Accountability Bureau, the Securities and Exchange Commission of Pakistan, the State Bank of Pakistan, the Provincial Home Departments, the Provincial Law Departments, the Supreme Court of Pakistan, the High Courts, the District Courts, the Federal and Provincial Judicial Academies, the Federal and Public Service Commissions, the Anti-Narcotics Force, the Anti-Terror Courts, the Provincial Anti-Corruption Bodies as Additional Entities (page 46).


ANNEX II | Actions Already Undertaken by Pakistan

B. Measures Relevant to the NAP Priority Areas

i. Financial Transparency, Corruption and Human Rights Standards in Public Procurement Contracts (page 73)

‘Corruption in the public sector has been criminalised under various legislative instruments such as the Pakistan Penal Code 1860 and the Prevention of Corruption Act 1947.

The Local Government Acts and Ordinances, which apply at both Federal and Provincial levels, also provide guidance to public officials to ensure that their actions do not constitute corruption or misuse of authority.

The Eradication of Corrupt Business Practices Ordinance 1998 has also been promulgated to enforce anti-corruption laws against companies. This law criminalises any act of corruption carried out during business activity.

The National Accountability Bureau (NAB) has been established to ensure the enforcement of laws and to investigate and prosecute crimes of corruption. In recent years, the independence of NAB has been strengthened to ensure that all cases of corruption and financial misrepresentation are thoroughly investigated. In this regard, the Federal Investigation Agency, and the Federal Board of Revenue supplement the work of the NAB to ensure that criminal actions involving corruption are adequately addressed.

The Provincial Anti-Corruption Establishments have also been set up to investigate offences of corruption by public servants.’