Part I – Rational Framework for the development, adoption and implementation of the NAP
1. International Context
1.1. United Nations (pg. 12)
…Under their terms of reference, “Protect, Respect and Remedy,” the 31 United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights:
c. Underline the need for appropriate and effective remedies – judicial and non-judicial – for human rights violations at both State and enterprise levels (Guiding Principles 25- 31).
1.5. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (pg. 14)
… The UN Guiding Principles have since been adapted and developed five times, most recently at the OECD’s 50th Anniversary Ministerial Meeting, on May 25, 2011. On this occasion, the OECD Guidelines for Multinational Enterprises received a specific chapter on human rights, the wording of which was aligned on the United Nations Guiding Principles on Business and Human Rights. From a human rights perspective, the 2011 revision is a fundamental step and, by opening up its scope, has particularly widened the access to remedies since currently the complaints addressed to National Contact Points (NCP) in OECD Member States cover about a quarter of violations on human rights…
… The key role of National Contact Points (NCPs) was emphasized by Ministers at the 2017 OECD Council Meeting and was reiterated at their 2018 Meeting. The G20 in July 2017 also referred to the NCP Mechanism of the OECD as a platform for non-judicial resolution of conflicts. NCPs network is currently the only government mechanism for out-of-court conflict resolution. It provides stakeholders with a platform to address grievances arising during operations carried out by companies in or from Member States. The impact and influence of this instrument goes even further if we consider that the big companies of the industrialized countries, most of them member states of the OECD, have considerable power over non-Member States through the increasingly global network of supply chains and outsourcing and, therefore, have the ability to impose their standards. It is therefore essential, as part of a process such as the PAN, to measure its full scope and the precursory role.